IN20 – Pak, Jung H. KIM JONG-UN HAS A MAXIMUM PRESSURE AND ENGAGEMENT STRATEGY OF HIS OWN (The Brookings Institution, April 18, 2018, 4 pages) 김정은은 자신만의 최대 압박과 대화전략을 가지고있다 – Click here for available text on the InternetIN21 – McEachern, Patrick. DOMAIN OF GAINS, DOMAIN OF LOSSES: WHY KIM JONG-UN’S EXPECTATIONS MATTER FOR THE U.S.-NORTH KOREA SUMMIT (Council on Foreign Relations, April 18, 2018, various pages) 이익의 영역, 손실의 영역 : 김정일의 기대가 미북 정상 회담에 중요한 이유 – Click here for available text on the InternetWhen North Korean leader Kim Jong-un reportedly offered a summit meeting with President Donald Trump, American and South Korean officials understandably and predictably credited the “maximum pressure” strategy. They reasoned that sanctions and pressure tactics brought Kim to the table, secured Pyongyang’s unilateral concession on refraining from nuclear and ballistic missile flight tests, and would allow the two leaders to discuss denuclearization. Notwithstanding skepticism about North Korea’s intentions, non-governmental analyses largely agree that Kim is coming to the table because sanctions are “beginning to bite.”IN22 – Cha, Victor; Katz, Katrin Fraser. THE RIGHT WAY TO COERCE NORTH KOREA(Foreign Affairs, May/June 2018 Issue, 10 pages) 북한을 향한 올바른 길 – Click here for available text on the InternetWhen it comes to North Korea, U.S. President Donald Trump’s policies have been whiplash inducing. On February 23, he appeared to be gearing up for a conflict when he said that if sanctions against Pyongyang didn’t work, Washington would have to move to “phase two,” which could be “very, very unfortunate for the world.” But just two weeks later, Trump abruptly changed course and accepted an invitation to meet with North Korean leader Kim Jong Un—a decision that caught even his own White House and State Department by surprise.IN23 – Jervis, Robert; Rapp-Hooper, Mira. PERCEPTION AND MISPERCEPTION ON THE KOREAN PENINSULA (Foreign Affairs, March 22, 2018, 10 pages) 한반도에 대한 인식과 잘못된 인식 – Click here for available text on the InternetNorth Korea has all but completed its quest for nuclear weapons. It has demonstrated its ability to produce boosted-fission bombs and may be able to make fusion ones, as well. It can likely miniaturize them to fit atop a missile. And it will soon be able to deliver this payload to the continental United States. North Korea’s leader, Kim Jong Un, has declared his country’s nuclear deterrent complete and, despite his willingness to meet with U.S. President Donald Trump, is unlikely to give it up. Yet Washington continues to demand that Pyongyang relinquish the nuclear weapons it already has, and the Trump administration has pledged that the North Korean regime will never acquire a nuclear missile that can hit the United States. The result is a new, more dangerous phase in the U.S.–North Korean relationship: a high-stakes nuclear standoff.IN24 – Cordesman, Anthony H. MORE THAN A NUCLEAR THREAT: NORTH KOREA’S CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS (Center for Strategic and International Studies, May/June 2018 Issue, 28 pages) 핵 위협 보다 더한 것: 북한의 화학, 생물학, 그리고 재래식 무기 – Click here for available text on the Internet
Ultimately, Kim’s maximum pressure and engagement are two sides of the same coin—a strategy aimed at keeping and advancing its nuclear weapons program, removing the United States from the Korean Peninsula, maintaining strategic relevance in the region, and potentially trying to create conditions for unification on his terms. While we should support the current mood of diplomacy and engagement, we should not be easily lured by Kim’s sweet whispers of peace, without credible actions to accompany his promises.
North Korean development of biological weapons both poses a serious potential threat to the United States and its strategic partners, and illustrates the broader dangers of proliferation. Biological weapons pose dangers that are growing steadily with the proliferation of the civil, dual- use, and military technologies that can be used to develop and manufacture biological weapons – such as genetic engineering and drones.